Without ammo our guns would just be awkward clubs.
There are a whole lot of cartridges in existence. I shall mention a few of them that I actually like.
the way, there is no one accepted standard method of naming cartridges.
It's a conglomeration of old names that have stuck around, new names
that were developed by folks trying to sell them, cartridges that were
named after their inventor, and a whole lot of other things. Add in
that some cartridges were named using the "traditional" English units
of inches and such and that some of them were named using the metric
system and things get even muddier than they already were. By the way,
if you are interested in cartridges and their histories I cannot
recommend too highly the fine book Cartridges of the World.
brief word or two about the term "calibre" (or "caliber" -- either
spelling is correct). The diameter of the projectile, expressed in
hundredths of an inch, is referred to as that projectile's "calibre."
The same word is also used to refer to the entire cartridge. Some
"large caliber" rounds are actually fire smaller bullets than some of
their "small-calibre" brethren but are so-called because they are more
powerful. The actual name of a specific cartridge will often contain
the word "calibre" as in the "Caliber .30 US Carbine." Often these
dimensions are approximate at best. The .38 Special cartridge actually
has a projectile that measures .357" in diameter. Historically there is
a chain of events that explains why this is the case, but most of us
just remember it as an odd fact. In fact manufacturers often fudge the
numbers just to keep them different form their competitors' (or even
their own) offerings. Thus we have the .218 Bee, the .219 Zipper, the .220 Swift, the
.221 Fireball, the .222 Remington, the .223 Remington, the .224
Weatherby Magnum, and the .225 Winchester and they all shoot the exact
same diameter bullets.
So let's start by making a list of some cartridges. Click on the cartridge name to go to the page where I talk about it.
The list is pretty much from smallest diameter bullet to
the largest diameter slug.
.223 Remington (aka: 5.56 NATO)
.30 US Carbine
.30-30 (aka: .30 WCF)
.308 Winchester (aka: 7.62 NATO)
.300 Winchester Magnum
7.63 Mauser (aka: .30 Mauser)
7.92x57JS (aka: 8mm Mauser)
.38 Special/.357 Magnum/.357 Maximum
.38-40 (aka: .38 WCF)